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A Century of Genocide - 28 January 2002

Reflections on the Armenian Experience by Kh I PILIKIAN. This paper was a presentation at Holocaust Memorial Day, 28 January 2002, at Equalities Unit, Town Hall, The London Borough of Camden.

Thank you Equalities Unit of the London Borough of Camden for organising this auspicious event. Particular thanks to the Mayor, Roger Robinson, for chairing our contemplative gathering. Congratulations to all those who contributed in preparing the Exhibition of materials to illustrate this "Aspect of Genocide", which reminds me of the Chinese proverb that "a picture is worth ten thousand words, but it takes words to say that". Allow me then first a few words, in support of those "ten thousand words".

A pamphlet written in 1905 to expose the genocidal treatment of a colonial people, had these devastating sentences uttered by a colonialist king:

Yes, all things went harmoniously and pleasantly in those good days, and I was looked up to as the benefactor of a down-trodden and friendless people. Then all of a sudden came the crash! That is to say, the incorruptible kodak - and all the harmony went to hell! The only witness I have encountered in my long experience that I couldn't bribe. 1

With all respect to the Chinese wisdom, I think no photographic portrait illustrates better the character of a tyrant usurper and a criminal despot at that, better than those words.Yes, sometimes some words might illustrate some things better than pictures.

The king was Leopold of Belgium, the absolute ruler of Congo "independent state", eighty times the size of Belgium. The colonised people were the Congolese, those 'unoffending millions, upon millions of robbed, mutilated and massacred men, women, and children' 2 - the price paid for the plunder by king Leopold of Congo's rubber, the black gold of its time. The author of the pamphlet was the great American satirist - Mark Twain.

It is only fair for humanity's sake to remember the genocide of the Congolese of more than ten million victims, which was still rampant ten years earlier than the genocide of the Armenians of 1915.
Oh no, Herr Hitler, I am not forgetting the Armenian Genocide, as you hoped and preached: 'Who after all speaks today of the annihilation of the Armenians?'.3 But I also don't want to forget the sufferings of my fellow human beings. In suffering and in joy humanity is one.

While preparing any talk I am invited to deliver, I always remember the advice of the classic Latin dictum: "Aut tace, aut loquere meliora silentio", meaning, in plain English: "Keep silent unless your talk is better than silence". I hope today, I can live up to that advice.

The question is; how to reflect on the Armenian Experience of Genocide.

Deep in my heart I wish Armenians had no such experience to talk about. Indeed I feel perhaps I would even have been a happier human being if other people whether Jews, Palestinians, Kurds, Assyrians, Serbs, Kossovans, Rwandans, Cambodians, Timorese, American Indians, Bulgarians, Greeks and alas many others had also no such experience. But most importantly, I truly believe that our precious and only world will be a much better place to live, and die for that matter, if that ultimate terrorism is banished out of existence for all times to come. Wishful thinking? So be it.

Our British Prime Minister Tony Blair wants 'to tell each new generation what happened and what could happen again'.4 Well said. But, respectfully, the point is to tell generations not to let it happen again.Yehuda Bauer reflects: 'If they were possible once, they are possible again'.5 But, yet again respectfully, how about reflecting on how not to make them possible again. I hope, I am right in assuming that it is precisely this possibility, nay perhaps even the probability of realising such an humanising wish which has brought us all here to reflect together on the century of that ultimate terrorism, the Crime against all humanity - Genocide. No wonder thus advises an Armenian dictum: "I pray God not to let this evil befall my worst enemy".

Now imagine a Turkish poet loved by Armenians, in spite of the historical fact that in 1915 nearly two million Armenians perished at the hands of the proto-Nazi government of the "Young Turks", a political party otherwise known as "Ittihad ve Terakke".6 My own parents dared outlive the Genocide, hence my living memory of that evil event.

It is sad to imagine a national government incarcerating its greatest national poet, Nazim Hikmet, for nearly one third of his entire life. While he was kept behind bars, the best of the literary world recognised Nazim Hikmet as the comrade-in-arms and in-letters of Aragon, Mayakovsky and Pablo Neruda.

In a masterpiece of a poem titled An Evening Promenade, written soon after he was released from prison, Nazim Hikmet mentions his Armenian friend who:

.. .shall never forgive, until his death
Those responsible for his father's slaughter
In the Kurdish mountains.
He still hates them...
But (the poet concludes addressing himself)
Karabet loves you
Because he knows well
That you yourself have not forgiven
Those responsible for the shame brought on the Turkish people.7

The poem's mere allusion to the genocidal crime is sufficient enough for the poet to blame the perpetrators of the crime who brought shame on the whole Turkish people. But most significantly, Hikmet's An Evening Promenade is a monument in verse which celebrates humanity's brotherhood while condemning iniquity, war, police terror, and Fascism whether national or international, of brutalising the individual, who is indeed the microcosm of humanity and history.

This year 2002, UNESCO is celebrating Nazim Hikmet's 100th Birth Anniversary.

Nazim Hikmet was born in Salonika.

Mustafa Kemal, (the Founder of Modern Turkey), was also born in Salonika.

Hikmet was incarcerated in the newly created Turkish Republic, ruled for decades by Kemal himself now the Ataturk or the "father" of Nazim's beloved homeland.

It was in Salonika also that the "Ittihad ve Terakke" party of the Young Turks' conference of August 1910 took place where the macabre decision was taken to Turkify the whole of the Ottoman Empire by brutal force.8 A year later again in Salonika, the same Young Turks' party conference of October 1911 reconfirmed their ominous decision of racist cleansing of minds and land by massacres.9

I am in tune with Nazim Hikmet, the Turk with the abundant humanity and compassion.

I am appalled by Mustafa Kemal the "Father" incarcerating the greatest poet Hikmet, son of his mother country.

I accuse and condemn the Young Turks and their monstrous "Party of Union and Progress" (Ittihad ve Terakke) as master criminals, nay Terrorists Supreme, against humanity at large.

In 1980, UNESCO had celebrated the 1500th Birth Anniversary of the Armenian philosopher David Anhaght, meaning the "Invincible David".

David Anhaght taught that definitions are intrinsically linked with the process of understanding, the thought activity to understand how a phenomenon, or an appearance is linked with its essence viz.true reality.10

Why and When "Genocide" was defined hence coined, illustrates that link.

The Polish-born American Jurist Raphael Lemkin who coined the word "Genocide" presumably in 1930's, tells us in his autobiography that he delved into studying history to understand what was happening in the world in 1915, when Germany invaded Warsaw, his residence at the time. It was there and then that he heard and read about the 'bloody events in Armenia'. He wrote also that 'truth reached us only after the war ... that in Turkey 1.200,000 Armenians were killed ... the nation was annihilated ... and those responsible for that crime were let free ...I was shocked. Why an individual is punished when homicide is committed? Why should the murder of millions [of people] be [considered] a lesser crime than killing one person?' Continuing his recollection Lemkin adds, '...very soon contemporary variants of genocide emerged which were essentially similar to the 1915 massacres of the Armenians'.11 To focus his own definition of genocide further Lemkin, later on states, it was 'what the Turks did to the Armenians, that the Germans did to the Jews'.12

What about the Holocaust?

On December 9, 1948 the General Assembly of the United Nations approved of the UN Convention on Genocide. Neither the definition nor its five criteria mention the word Holocaust. Hence I wonder why and when the word Holocaust was thought to define the Jewish experience of Genocide.

Etymologically Holocaust means "whole-burnt" and is intrinsically linked with the act of sacrifice - a sacrificial offering which is completely consumed by fire whereby cleansing from sins and ultimately purification is expected to be attained.

Does Genocide "taketh away the sins" of the murdered community whether massacred, gassed or burnt? Or does it perhaps cleanse the sins of the murderers for the bliss of purification? God forbid.

German Nazis, like their proto-models the Young Turks, committed the ultimate crime against humanity rightly expressed as Genocide. With all respect to all concerned, I must say that Holocaust is an erroneous and misleading coinage of the reality it is hoped to illustrate and define. More importantly it is unfair to the millions of the Jewish victims of the ultimate Nazi crime - Genocide.

As all genocides, that of the Genocide of the Armenians did not start or just happen then in 1915. Whenever and wherever it happens, genocide is always premeditated, conceptualised and its execution meticulously organised at the highest governmental levels, whether Ottoman, Young Turks and even Kemalist new Turkey, witness also the Kurdish tragedy unfolding today.

Kâmil Pasha (1838-1912) was to become the Grand Vizier or the Prime Minister of the Ottoman Empire - Sultan Abdul Hamid's Prime Minister four times over. He was also the author of the three volume "Political History of the Ottoman State" published in 1909/10. A statement penned by Kâmil Pasha was cited in the prestigious Armenian periodical of the time Ports (Trial), in Tiflis, in 1879 (v.VII/VIII, pp 204-205). The statement graphically confirms the genocidal programme in preparation, even before, mind you, the emergence of the Armenian political parties, later accused by the Young Turks as the Casus Belli of their genocidal deed. Thus spoke the Ottoman Turkish Pasha:

. . . If we nurtured snakes in our midst in Europe, we should not repeat
the same folly in Asiatic Turkey. . . . Thus, we must eliminate, leave behind no traces of, that Armenian nation, And to accomplish this task, we are lacking in nothing; we have all the means we need - governors, judges, tax-collectors, police, in short everything. We can declare a religious war, an easy war - waged against a 'nation' that has no arms, no army, no leadership. . . . And if that Armenian 'nation' is destroyed and if Christian Europe should look for a co-religionist and does not find it in Asiatic Turkey, it will leave us alone. Then we can begin to concern ourselves with internal affairs and reform.13

Kâmil Pasha's conceptualised genocidal programme was put into operation during 1894-1896 at Sassun, Van, Zeitun and Diarbekir, resulting in the massacre of 300,000 Armenians, 3000 villages were burned and 'tens of thousands were forced to flee their native land into all corners of the earth...'14

Prof. Em. Dillon (1854-1933), the Irish linguist and journalist, visited Turkey in 1895. His work as an investigative journalist led him to assert the following:

It is already proven that the pillage and the massacres of Sassun
is the deliberately organised act of the Sublime Porte, an act planned
in advance meticulously and executed mercilessly . . . 15

Kâmil Pasha was still around, writing and publishing his "history" books when the massacres at Adana in Cilicia of 1909 (April 1-4 and 12-14) resulted in 30,000 Armenian deaths. The latter was indeed the 'maiden performance' of the Young Turks relishing in the prospects of their racist vision. An eye-witness of the Adana massacres, Helen Davenport Gibbons wrote in her book The Red Rugs of Tarsus ( Paris, 1919, p.101):

This massacre was more terrible than those in the days of Abdul
Hamid. . . Those Armenians who had succeeded in escaping the first
carnage are now destroyed . Adana has become a veritable inferno.16

When the First World War broke out, some Armenians, counting a few thousand, had managed to flee and reach Russian occupied Eastern Armenia. Many of them served in the volunteer regiments of the Tzar. In the opposite camp an estimated quarter of million Armenians were conscripted in the Ottoman armies by the government of the Young Turks.17 However the Ittihadist policy of conscripting Armenians was part of their genocidal plan.The Armenian nation was depleted of its able-bodied male population.The macabre Overture just performed, the stage was set for the Tragedy of Total Terror.

At this point, let us ponder a while upon a "mysterious" historical interlude!

Dragging people through conscription to serve as canon-fodder has a very long and infamous history, all over the world. Armenians also served as such during the Crimean war. Early in 1850's, a mysterious pretender of "so said" the crown of the Armenian Kingdom, who was residing in London at the time, issued the following Proclamation with the intention of dragging the Armenians into the catastrophic Crimean War by exploiting their religious and patriotic sentiments. No less than Karl Marx himself realised the importance of the said proclamation to expose the hypocrisy of colonial powers, hence he quoted it in its entirety in an article in the New York Daily Tribune, on July 1, 1853, (No. 3809). Here is an excerpt:

Leo, by the Grace of God sovereign Prince of Armenia & C., to the
Armenians in Turkey.
Beloved brethren and faithful countrymen.
Our will and our ardent wish is that you should defend to the last
drop of your blood your country and the Sultan against the tyrant of the
North [the Tzar] . . . Under the reign of the Sultan, there is humanity,
while under that of the tyrant of the North there are nothing but
atrocities. Therefore place yourselves under the direction of God . . .
Pull down your houses to make barricades, and if you have no arms,
brake your furniture and defend yourselves with it . . . Remember,
at least, brothers, that the blood that runs in the veins of him who now
addresses you, is the blood of twenty kings, it is the blood of heroes -
Lusignans - and defenders of our faith; . . . let us defend our creed
and its pure form, until our last drop of blood.18

Thanking Karl Marx for having "saved" Leo's Proclamation, it is tempting to brush it aside with classical British "no comment". Only that it reminds me of the British colonel, Fenwick Williams, RE, who was then modernising the Turkish army (before the German military take-over of the same job) and fortifying the citadel of Kars. In March 1855, addressing the populace and their notables, among them their Christian leaders, Col. Williams declared:

The time has come when you may shake off your thraldom, and take
your place as free citizens; . . . you will fight, then, for us; take your spades and come and dig with us at the batteries; we will welcome you as brothers

Then, we are told what the Archbishop answered:

Oh! English Pasha, we are your sacrifice, we will work, dig, fight, and
die for you.

The chronicler then observes:

The next morning the Turks were astonished at the crowd of Christians
assembled with spade and mattock, and still more, at the good will with
which they worked and the endurance with which they continued their

I wonder if colonel Williams had the blood of the Lusignan Leos in his veins...

The Armenians fighting with the Russians against the British, French, Turks and their own compatriots Turkish Armenians must have had different blood in their veins! It might well be argued whether the "new blood" of the Young Turks was "holier" than Leo's...I am sure they thought so, to be able to contemplate the enactment of the Tragedy of Total Terror upon the Ottoman Armenian population, depleting first of its entire able-bodied male population through their conscription into labour battalions before ordering them to dig their own mass graves...

Kâmil Pasha's "faithful disciple" Nazim Bey Selanikly (1870-1926), the executive secretary of the Young Turks Central Board, spelled out the Ittihadist genocidal creed to his comrades-in-arms, early in 1915, during a Central Board meeting presided over by comrade-brother Talaat. Nazim Bey sermonised:

If we are going to be satisfied with the kind of local massacres that
occurred in Adana and other places in 1909 . . . if this purge is not going
to be universal and final, instead of good, it will inevitably result in harm.
It is imperative that the Armenian people be completely exterminated; that not even one single Armenian be left on our soil; that the name, Armenian, be obliterated. We are now at war; there is no more auspicious occasion than this; the intervention of the great powers and the protests of newspapers will not even be considered; and even if they are the matter will have become an accomplished total annihilation - it is necessary that not even one single Armenian survives this annihilation.
. . . I became your brother and comrade 20 in order to vitalise Turkism. I want to see the Turk, and only the Turk, living on this land; [ . . . ] This country must be purged of all non-Turk elements [ . . . ] Pitiful will be our lot, if a total liquidation, a total extermination, is not consummated.21

Nazim Bey's "Sermon of the Blood" boiled the Ittihadists' blood... and they obliged.

On 23/24 April 1915, in Istanbul, around 300 Armenian intellectuals, of all professions, including the poet Levon Kirishjian (better known as Larents), the renowned translator (in 1911) of the Holy Quran into Armenian, were arrested and deported, and soon, nearly all of them butchered. Until mid May, the Armenian civic population was practically depleted of its intellectuals; 196 writers, 575 musicians, 336 doctors, 176 teachers and college professors, 160 lawyers, 62 architects, 64 actors...all arrested, deported, disappeared for good...22

On June 15th 1915, twenty prominent members of the Armenian Social Democratic Henchakist party were hanged in Bayazit square in Istanbul. The Henchakist stood in opposition to the Ittihadists. That was a mortal sin!

The culminating act of the genocidal scheme was thus set in motion; the elderly, the women and the children, nearly the entire Armenian population of Asia Minor was ordered out, southward towards the deserts of Northern Syria.

Talaat Mehmet Pasha (1874-1921), Leader of the Young Turks Ittihadist party and Minister of the Interior, dispatched this order to the Governor of Aleppo:

All the rights of Armenians to live and work on Turkish land are
abrogated in full. The responsibility for this is assumed by the Govern-
ment, which has ordered that not even infants in cradles be spared. 23

Indeed, none and nothing was spared.

Vandalism, rape, extortion, sadistic torture, starvation, murder raids and all ad infinitum.The rest is...the scream of humanity at its most infernal.

At this point I think it's worth to visualise a statistical bird's eye view of Armenia, land and people before and after Genocide - B.G and A.G.

If we take the whole land area of the world to be 5 thousand units, Historical Armenia for many thousands of years covered 10 units, as the Encyclopaedia of Islam estimates the total area of Historical Armenia, the Arminiyya, covered ca. 300,000 square kilometres. The ratio then was 500 to 1.

Today the Republic of Armenia counts one unit of the Historical Homeland of 10. The remaining 9 units were violently usurped, often with genocidal acts. The above mentioned ratio has become 5000 to 1.

Geographers and demographers confirm that the entire world 2000 years ago counted ca.150 million inhabitants, while Armenians in their own homeland were ca. 5 millions. Hence the ratio was 30 to 1. In the 11th century, while in Britain there were 2 million people, in Armenia proper there were 6 million. At the beginning of the 19th century the world population counted 900 million while the Armenians were nearly halved during the preceding eight centuries. Hence the ratio had become 300 to 1. To day that ratio has fallen to 1000 to 1.

During two thousand years the world population has increased at least 40 times, despite wars, massacres and natural calamities, while there is practically no increase in the number of the Armenian inhabitants world-wide, including the population of the Republic of Armenia, the Diaspora at large and the ca 200,000 or so left in the Republic of Turkey (out of the 2.5 million Armenian inhabitants in Asia Minor before the 1915 Genocide).

We should bear in mind also the following; during one single Seljuk-Turk raid of A.D 1170, the much treasured Balapert library in Western Armenia containing over ten thousand manuscripts was completely destroyed with all its contents.

Today in the main Library of Ancient Books, Matenadaran, in Yerevan, the capital of Armenia, there are ca. only eleven thousand complete manuscripts. Surely the scale of the cultural pillage and the destruction of the Armenian Heritage is incalculable...

When serving as Editor in Chief of Documents on British Foreign Policy, Prof. W. N. Medlicott, Stevenson Professor of International History, University of London, tried to assess the enormity of the Armenian cultural loss and he paid a valiant tribute to the Armenian spirit of survival. On 14 September 1974, Prof. Medlicott wrote the following:

Hardly less tragic than the actual destruction of life has been the
disruption of an age-long cultural and religious heritage and the loss of
an ancestral home tenaciously defended for over 2000 years. It is well
that these events should be recorded and that we should pay a tribute
to the courage of the survivors of the massacres and their descendants,
scattered though they now are throughout the world. 24

What then, and what kind of a world are we living in?

In 1978, UNESCO warned the world that the greatest shame of the current civilisation is the fact that thousands of children die of hunger every single day. In just two decades that number has reached the staggering 13 million per annum. In other words 33,000 children die of hunger alone each day of the year, as if a Hiroshima nuclear bomb were dropped once every three days to kill only children and that, all year round, and most probably next year too, and the years after, it seems.

Can there be any doubt that this is also the unmentioned genocide of humanity, ongoing and an "authentic" one at that, which surely is the outcome of our own socio-economic and industrial military system, now coined with cynical panache as "Globalisation".

In the words of Nazim Hikmet, the poet laureate of UNESCO 2002:

Where art thou, oh, humanity?
Where art thou?
Insanlar ey, nerdesiniz?
Nerdesiniz? 25

When genocides, torture, poverty and wars are justified as "human nature" or as a historical and economic necessary evil, nay even as historical inevitability of "so called" clashing civilisations, then and there silence acquires an obscene eloquence in support of inhumanity - sheer Barbarism of Total Terror.

© Kh. I. Pilikian, 2002


1 Maxwell Geismar, Mark Twain & The Three R's, Indianapolis/New York: Dobbs-Merrill, 1973, p. 59. King Leopold's Soliloquy on the Belgian Congo (Pamphlet, 1905, published by American Anti Imperialisdt League), pp. 41-61.
2 Ibid., p. 41. A Thanksgiving Sentiment on the Congo, pp. 40-41.
3 E. V. Gulbekian, The Poles and Armenians in Hitler's Political Thinking, in ARMENIAN REVIEW, Autumn 1988. Volume 41, No. 3-163. pp. 1-14. Hitler's infamous words are cited in a brochure published by Holocaust Memorial Day - The London Borough of Camden Equalities Unit, 28 January 2002, p.2.
4 The Prime Minister Tony Blair, at the Launch of Holocaust Memorial Day, 26 January 2001, cited in London Borough of Camden's brochure of 28 January 2002, p. 2.
5 Yehuda Bauer, The Holocaust in Historical Perspective, cited in Camden's brochure, p.3.
6 Levon Vartan, Chronology of the Armenian Fifteen 1915-1923 (in Armenian), Beirut:Atlas
1975, p. 268.
7 Nazim Hikmet, Poems, in Eastern literary Armenian, translated by Gevork Emin, Yerevan: Haypethrat , 1986, p. 112. Revised from the original Turkish by K.I.Pilikian.
8 L. Vartan, op. cit., p. 3.
9 Ibid.
10 David Anhaght, [Philosophical] Writings, translated from Classical (Grabar) Amenian into Eastern literary Armenian, with introduction and notes by S.S. Arevshadian.Yerevan ,1989. See Definitions of Philosophy, section A, pp. 35-44.
11 Gevorg Barseghian, Measures of Legality of the Term Genocide, (in Armenian). In Soviet Armenia monthly, 1986, Volume 12, p.31.
12 CRAG (Campaign for Recognition of the Armenian Genocide) Report, London, Summer 2001, p. 6.
13 E.K.Sarkisian and R.G.Sahakian, Vital Issuers in Modern Armenian History, translated and edited by E.B.Chrakian, Masssachusetts: Armenian Studies, 1965, p. 17. In PORTS (Trial), Armenian periodical, Tiflis, V.7/8, pp. 204-205, cited by Hovsep Shishmanian, (1822-1888) better known as Dzerents, the renowned novelist and historian, in his monthly column Armenian Theory, under the heading : The Ottoman Autocracy, Turkish and Russian Armenians, pp.200-211. A fuller text of this historical document - the section concerning the Armenians of "Asia Minor" - reads as follows: . . . If we nurtured smakes in our midst in Europe, we should not repeat the same folly in Asiatic Tajkastan [Turkey]. The sensible thing to do is to destroy and eliminate any
and all elements which may some day give rise to the same danger, afford the opportunity for foreign intervention, and serve as its tool.
Now, today, at least, the interests of England demand that our territories in Asia Minor (we and England not only do not recognize the word Armenia, but needs crush the very jaws that uutter that name) remain free from any foreign intervention and from all possible occasions for such intervention. Therefore, for the sake of that sacred cause
- and our right as a sovereign state demands it, too - it is imperative that we exterminate any and all suspicious elements in order to insure our future security. Thus, we must eliminate, leave behind no traces of that Armenian nation. And to accomplish this task, we are lacking in nothing; we have all the means we need - Kurds, Cherkez, governors, judges, tax-collectors, police, in short, everything. We can declare a religious
war - waged against a nation that has no arms, no army, and no defender, whereas, in contrast, we have arms, army, and, besides, we have one of the greatest and richest states of the world as our comrade-in arms and the guardian of our Asian world. And if that Armenian nation is destroyed and if Christian Europe should look for a co-religionist and does not find it in Asiatic Tajkastan [Turkey], it will leave us alone.
Then we can begin to concern ourselves with internal affairs and reforms.

14 Sarkisian and Sahakian, op. cit., p.18.
15 Ibid., p. 18.
16 Ibid., pp. 20-21.
17 David M. Lang and Christopher J. Walker, THE ARMENIANS. London: The Minority Rights Group Report, fifth printing 1981, No. 32, p.8.
18 Karl Marx, Frederick Engels, Collected Works, Moscow: Progresss Publishers, 1979, Volume 12, p. 138. First appeared in The Daily News, No.2207, June 17, 1853. Cited by K. Marx in his article written on June 17, 1853, first published in the New York Daily Tribune, No3809, and the New York Semi-Weekly Tribune, No 845, July 1, 1853. The full text of this historical document is presented by Marx with the following paragraphs: It may be of interest to your readers to become acquainted with a document concerning the Eastern question, which was recently published in a London newspaper. It is a proclamation issued by the Prince of Armenia, now residing in London, and distributed among tha Armenians in Turkey: "Leo, by the grace of God, sovereign Prince of Armenia, &c., to the Armenians in Turkey:
"Beloved brothers and faithful countrymen. - Our will and our ardent wish is that you should defend to the last drop of your blood your country and the Sultan against the
tyrant of the North. Remember, my brotheres, that in Turkey there are no knouts, they do
not tear your nostrils and your women are not flogged, secretly or in public. Under the reign of the Sultan, there is humanity, while under that of the tyrant of the North there are nothing but atrocities. Therefore place yourselves under the direction of God, and fight bravely for the liberty of your country and your present sovereign. Pull down your houses to make barricades, and if you have no arms, break your furniture and defend youselves with it. May Heaven guide you on your path to glory. My only happiness will be to fight in the midst of you against the oppressor of your country, and your creed. May God incline
the Sultan's heart to sanction my demand, because under his reign, our religion remains in
its pure form while, under the Northern tyrant, it will be altered. Remember, at least, brothers, that the blood that runs in the veins of him who now addresses you, is the blood of twenty kings, it is the blood of heroes - Lusignans - and defenders of our faith; and we say to you, let us defend our creed and its pure form, until our last drop of blood."

19 Christopher J. Walker, ARMENIA, The Survival of a Nation, London: Croom Helm, 1980, pp. 58-59.
20 Brother and comrade, or comrade-brother, refer to Young Turks' Freemason and political party Ittihad ve Terakke affiliations. See M. Sükrü Hanioglu, The Young Turks in Opposition Oxford University Press, 1995, pp. 33-41 (The Relations between the Freemasons, the Young
Turks, and the CUP).
21 Sarkisian and Sahakian, op. cit., p.33.
22 L. Vartan, op. cit., pp. 72-73.
23 Sarkisian and Sahakian, op. cit., p 38.
24 Henry Morgenthau, The Murder of a Nation, New York: AGBU, 1974, from the Forward.
25 K.I.Pilikian, Nazim Hikmet - an Armenian Perspective, in Toplum Postasi, the bilingual weekly (Turkish and English), London, January 24, 2002, p. 33.

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